OAS 2 This page applies to OpenAPI Specification ver. 2 (fka Swagger). To learn about the latest version, visit OpenAPI 3 pages.

File Upload

Swagger 2.0 supports file uploads sent with Content-Type: multipart/form-data. That is, your API server must consume multipart/form-data for this operation:

consumes:
   - multipart/form-data

The operation payload is defined using formData parameters (not body parameters). The file parameter must have type: file:

paths:
   /upload:
     post:
       summary: Uploads a file.
       consumes:
         - multipart/form-data
       parameters:
         - in: formData
           name: upfile
           type: file
           description: The file to upload.

This definition corresponds to the following HTTP request:

POST /upload
Host: example.com
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=----WebKitFormBoundaryqzByvokjOTfF9UwD
Content-Length: 204

------WebKitFormBoundaryqzByvokjOTfF9UwD
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="upfile"; filename="example.txt"
Content-Type: text/plain

File contents go here.

------WebKitFormBoundaryqzByvokjOTfF9UwD--

Swagger UI displays file parameters using a file input control, allowing the users to browse for a local file to upload.

Upload a File + Other Data

File parameters can be sent along with other form data:

      parameters:
        - in: formData
          name: upfile
          type: file
          required: true
          description: The file to upload.
        - in: formData
          name: note
          type: string
          required: false
          description: Description of file contents.

The corresponding HTTP request payload will include multiple parts:

POST /upload
Host: example.com
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=----WebKitFormBoundaryqzByvokjOTfF9UwD
Content-Length: 332

------WebKitFormBoundaryqzByvokjOTfF9UwD
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="upfile"; filename="example.txt"
Content-Type: text/plain

File contents go here.

------WebKitFormBoundarysKk4Z8KcYfU3u6Cs
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="note"

Uploading a file named "example.txt"

------WebKitFormBoundaryqzByvokjOTfF9UwD--

Multiple Upload

You can have several named file parameters, each defined individually:

      parameters:
        - in: formData
          name: upfile1
          type: file
          required: true
        - in: formData
          name: upfile2
          type: file
          required: false
        - in: formData
          name: upfile3
          type: file
          required: false

However, uploading an arbitrary number of files (an array of files) is not supported. There is an open feature request at https://github.com/OAI/OpenAPI-Specification/issues/254. For now, you can use a binary string array as a workaround for uploading an arbitrary number of files:

type: array
items:
  type: string
  format: binary

Note that this will not produce the file upload interface in Swagger UI.

FAQ

Can I upload files via PUT?

Swagger 2.0 supports file upload requests with Content-Type: multipart/form-data, but does not care about the HTTP method. You can use POST, PUT or any other method, provided that the operation consumes multipart/form-data. Uploads where the payload is just the raw file contents are not supported in Swagger 2.0, because they are not multipart/form-data. That is, Swagger 2.0 does NOT support something like:

curl --upload-file archive.zip http://example.com/upload

Note also that file uploading in Swagger UI only works for POST requests, because HTML forms in browsers support GET and POST methods only.

Can I define the Content-Type for uploaded files?

This is supported in OpenAPI 3.0, but not in OpenAPI/Swagger 2.0. In 2.0, you can say that an operation accepts a file, but you cannot say that this file is of a specific type or structure.

As a workaround, vendor extensions may be used to extend this functionality, for example:

- in: formData
  name: zipfile
  type: file
  description: Contents of the ZIP file.
  x-mimetype: application/zip

  

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